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ADA Consortium

ADA Consortium

This publication offers snippets of stories from our work with four pilot counties on the Devolution and locally-led Climate Disaster Risk Management Project. We hope that these stories, giving a glimpse of our collective journey through the project’s pilot phase, will motivate county governments, stakeholders, the national government and other development actors to facilitate, invest in, and support the mainstreaming of climate and disaster risk management in county-integrated development planning.


This publication presents learning from the key targets area of the interventions undertaken with Kwale, Narok, Makueni and Siaya counties to lay the foundation form mainstreaming climate risk management in county-integrated development plans and policies. It is based on lessons from Makueni County to prepare the other three counties to adopt the County Climate Change Fund (CCCF) mechanism. We highlight some notable first steps and activities. They include an exchange visit to Makueni by officers from other counties, lobbying county government leadership on CCCF, work on Climate Information Service Plans and the contextualization study in those counties as part of the preparedness for the mechanism.

These guidelines are written for counties interested in setting up a County Climate Change Fund (CCCF).

After six years of successful piloting and testing, the CCCF mechanism is being scaled out nationwide, steered by the Ministry of Devolution and ASAL Areas through the National Drought Management Authority (NDMA). The purpose of the guidelines is to ensure that counties harmonise their approach and meet the same standards.

This is a second edition of guidance originally published in 2018. The CCCF mechanism will continue to evolve as it expands into more counties and generates new learning. The guidelines will, therefore, continue to be revised, with updates between editions published on the website of the NDMA.

There are five further sections. Section 2 describes the CCCF mechanism: its purpose and components, its guiding principles and minimum standards, and the approach being taken to its scale-out. Sections 3-5 guide you through the stages of establishing a CCCF: preparation, decision-making, and implementation. The sixth and final section summarises the main steps you can take to ensure its quality. Each part of the guidelines concludes with practical tips from those with direct experience of the CCCF in the pilot counties of Garissa, Isiolo, Kitui, Makueni and Wajir.





  1. CS0 stakeholders adopt the Isiolo County Climate Change Fund Regulations 2019
  2. KSG validates the County Climate Change Fund Curriculum
  3. Vihiga and Tharaka-Nithi legislate their CCCF Act
  4. How can we incorporate local knowledge into climate planning and policy? ...Maps!
  5. Seven wards in Kitui prepare for the scale-out of the CCCF investments
  6. A robust climate change governance framework for LREB
  7. Siaya, Kwale, and Narok integrate ICRM into their county development and resilience planning

The County Climate Change Fund (CCCF) Mechanism is a devolved climate finance mechanism that facilitates the flow of climate finance to counties and enables public participation in its management as demonstrated in five ASAL counties of Isiolo, Garissa, Kitui, Makueni and Wajir. As part of the scale-out to Kwale, Narok and Siaya counties, a contextualization study under the World Bank-supported 'Devolution and Locally-Led Climate and Disaster Risk Management project sought to build CCCF preparedness for the counties. While highlighting key features of the mechanism, this brief presents findings from the study including enabling factors, potential challenges and recommendations on pursuing successful preparedness, establishment and operationalisation of the mechanism. The main conclusion drawn is that the mechanism may have attracted significant interest from county executive and policy-makers but proper leadership and citizen engagement in the counties are required for CCCFs.

 For long, elements of climate risk management have been pursued in Kenya by various national and county government institutions as well as non-state actors without an effective framework for coordination and appropriate guidance. The Adaptation Consortium (ADA), under the National Drought Management Authority (NDMA), sought to remedy this scenario by working with United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) to develop a Climate Risk Management Framework to guide integration of climate risk manage ment in policies, programmes, plans and institutions in Kenya. This brief highlight key features of the ICRM framework, shares a summary of the capacity building experience, and provides key lessons and recommenda tions on the integration of ICRM in county development and resilience planning based on ongoing capacity building work with four counties. The brief concludes that incorporating ICRM is key for sustainable develop ment and climate resilience, and that counties can make use of recommended opportunities and entry points to adopt an integrated risk management approach.

Climate change has adversely impacted on the communities and economies of the people of Makueni County. This is an inventory of adaptation and resilience projects supported by ADA Consortium under devolved climate finance mechanism. In September 2015, the Makueni County Government enacted the Makueni County Climate Change Fund (CCCF) Regulations, committing 1% of its annual development budget to climate change. This was a result of support received from the Adaptation Consortium project for policy legislation to establish devolved climate finance mechanism. The Makueni County Climate Change Regulation, 2015 was formulated under the Public Finance Management Act of 2012, and climate change legislations to provide a mechanism that enables vulnerable communities through their Climate Change structures, access and use climate finance to build their resilience to the changing climate in a more coordinated way. Through the regulations, the Makueni County government has established climate change structures (CCCF Steering Committee, the CCCF Board, the CCCF Planning Committee and Ward Climate Change Planning Committees) to oversee the coordination of devolved climate finance.

In 2016, Kshs. 42,280,830 (28,280,830M contracts’ payment, 4M operations and 10M co-funding by county government) was used in implementation of the prioritized public good investment as prioritized by communities and are currently benefitting 35,925 people. The investments range from the rehabilitation and construction of five sand dams, two earth dams, a water pipeline distribution and a rock catchment structure. The investments have contributed to increased water security and enhancing community resilience to climate change and have brought water closer to communities as they are able to collect and store rainy season run-off water which is made available for longer during the dry season. Communities also reported that the investments have reduced the distances that communities walk in search of water and enhanced food security as more arable land is used for micro irrigation.

Further through ADA project support interventions, 861 Climate Information Intermediaries (CIS) were trained to receive, interpret and disseminate climate information across the county for timely decision making through the support of Kenya Meteorological Department. This has led to reduced agricultural loses and informed decision making. About, 425,830 people have since received climate information

Kitui County Government, with support from the Adaptation Consortium, is implementing an innovative approach that enables vulnerable communities through their climate change planning committees access and use climate finance through identifying and prioritizing public good investments that build their resilience to climate change. The approach known as County Climate Change Fund mechanism also supports county governments to deliver on their mandate of achieving sustainable development in the face of a changing climate. This has encouraged a more effective, transparent and accountable planning process, delivering investments that benefit vulnerable communities and represent good value for money. The involvement of the community in prioritising the public good investments is in line with Kenya’s devolution agenda of participatory development, and county governments’ mandate to develop social and economic aspects according to local priorities.

To ensure sustainability, the design and sitting of the adaptation investment are informed by climate information making sure that current and future climate risks are taken into account. Climate information is also used by small holder farmers to make decisions on farm operations including the choice of crop varieties to plant depending on the seasonal outlook as a measure of adapting to climate change. The completed investments include sand dams, earth dams, rock catchment and water piping all aimed at improving community resilience.

This compendium provides information on (location, name, date of implementation, investment cost, description of the situation before and after the intervention, and nature of benefits as reported by the beneficiaries) the 12 public good investments currently benefitting 50,500 people (32,633 direct beneficiaries and 17,867 indirect beneficiaries) in the ten wards of Ikutha, Mutha, Mutito/ Kaliku, Voo/ Kyamatu, Kwa vonza/ Yatta, Kauwi, Migwani,Kiomo/ Kyethani, Tharaka and Ngomeni.

In Kitui County, a Climate Information Service (CIS) plan was also developed. Through its implementation, 1025 climate information service intermediaries have been trained. The intermediaries receive and disseminate climate information across the county through SMS and public barazas. A total of 723,300 people have received climate information through radio, intermediaries, public barazas and extension officers.

This publication showcases Isiolo County’s adaptation investments funded by the County Climate Change Fund over 2013-2016. The investments which are public good in nature were identified and prioritized by local communities through Ward Climate Change Planning Committees with support from county technical officers. The investments range from infrastructure development to institutional strengthening and development of strategies. Majority of the investments focus on strengthening the pastoral system by virtue of pastoralism being the mainstay of the county’s economy.

This document provides information on the 44 community adaptation investments in terms of: name, location, date of implementation, investment cost, description of the situation before and after the intervention, nature of benefits, the number of beneficiaries and some pictorial evidence. The CCCF approach seeks to support county governments mainstream climate change into their planning, budgeting and implementation and to be climate finance ready. Building capacity of local people to effectively participate in identifying and prioritizing priority areas of interventions has resulted into more pertinent investments that are contributing to building their resilience to the changing climate.

The 44 projects which in total costed KES145 Million have together benefited 175,519 people both resident and non-resident of Isiolo. The investments include development of water infrastructure and training in water governance in support of the multiple customary resource access rules and livestock mobility; construction of a radio station to disseminate weather and development information; strengthening customary natural resource management institutions -dedha for improved governance of the rangelands through reviewed rules of access and control including by pastoral groups who regularly visit Isiolo County; improved disease control through the rehabilitation of a decentralized livestock laboratory for disease surveillance and county-wide vaccination programme; and the development of county livestock strategy and resource map with a strong emphasis on building community resilience to climate change.

This inventory showcases public good investments funded by the Garissa County Climate Change Fund (GCCCF) over the period 2014- 2017. The public good investments were prioritized by communities through the Ward Climate Change Planning Committees to build their resilience to climate change.


Resilience assessment exercises carried out highlighted water shortage as the greatest challenge in Garissa County and thus all the prioritized investments were on water. The constructed and rehabilitated water infrastructure have reduced the distance that community walked in search of water, reduced cases of inter-clan conflict due to less movement in search of pasture and water, improved school’s attendance, and increase water accessibility ensuring water is available for longer periods.


The projects funded to a tune of Ksh. 10,128,000 are currently benefitting 72,000 people from Sankuri, Nanighi and Goreale Ward. The inventory provides detailed information of the investment including: investment name, location, date of implementation, investment cost, description of the situation before the intervention, description of the situation after the intervention, nature of benefits, the number of beneficiaries and pictorial evidence.

This document will be updated annually to include new CCCF projects that would be funded under the CCCF framework in Garissa County.


Wajir is among the first counties in Kenya to pass the County Climate Change Fund (CCCF) Act, anchored on the Climate Change Act of Kenya 2016. The CCCF act has seen the county make notable strides in addressing the effects of climate change through concerted efforts by different climate change actors. The County Climate Change Fund (CCCF) approach implemented through stakeholder’s participation ensures that communities can make decisions and prioritize needs through consultative process spearheaded by the Ward Climate Change Planning Committees (WCCPCs) and supported by the County Climate Change Fund structures that also include county technical officers.

Through the CCCF approach, the county government of Wajir implemented fourteen (14) community prioritized adaptation projects in twelve wards at a cost of Kshs. 54 Million in 2016. The projects are currently benefitting 281,696 people. Twelve of the fourteen projects were on the improvement of existing water infrastructure to curb the perennial water shortage in the County. Five water sources were fenced to protect water from contamination and misuse while five others rehabilitated through desilting and expansion to increase storage capacity to prolong the duration of use. This has reduced water stress and by extension water-related conflicts around water points. Two other projects involved the installation of solar panels and hybrid water pumps in the boreholes to utilize solar energy which not only reduces the use of fossil fuels but also ensure optimal use of the boreholes as needed.

The final two projects were mainly on capacity building of WCCPCs through training on natural resource management and awareness creation through the Wajir Community Radio to the general public on the proper use of natural resource governance for sustainability.

The County also developed an elaborate County Climate Information Service (CIS) plan that helps in mainstreaming climate change in her development planning and budgeting system. The plan is aimed at improving dissemination and utilization of climate information for timely decision making for enhanced resilience.


As new counties join the scale-out, its operational complexity will increase. There is now a portfolio of grants financing the scale-out, associated with different development partners and implementing agencies. While this diversity is an obvious strength – for example, the introduction of new skills and networks – it also brings challenges, particularly the risk of incoherence and of losing quality.

Consequently, the government has decided to apply a one-programme approach to the scale-out. This aims to ensure that all interventions and funding streams are aligned against a common strategic goal and that all actors work within a single government-led coordinating framework. The purpose of the one-programme approach is to maximise impact and efficiency and ensure that the various components of the scale-out are mutually reinforcing.

The report presents a review of the current legal framework for the County Climate Change Fund (CCCF) mechanism.  The review was commissioned by the Adaptation Consortium (Ada), and covers the five counties of Garissa, Isiolo, Kitui, Makueni, and Wajir, where the Consortium has piloted the mechanism since 2012.  It also analyses key policy and legal frameworks at the national level that have a bearing on the CCCF mechanism. The review was undertaken to inform the scaling out of the mechanism to the rest of the country in the light of its successful implementation in the five counties. 

The specific objectives of the review were to ensure alignment with the Constitution of Kenya 2010, relevant national policies and laws; to establish the 'legality feasibility (legality) of integrating the key principles and design features of the CCCF mechanism into its governing legal frameworks by they Acts or Regulations; to advice on effectiveness and sustainability of CCCF structures and to ensure that the CCCF legal and regulatory framework is sufficiently robust to enable counties access climate finance from different sources.

 The document summarises the key element of Isiolo County Climate Change Fund Act and the roles of the different committee roles.

The Isiolo County Government established Climate Change Fund Act, 2018, An ACT of the Isiolo County Assembly for the establishment of a Climate Change Fund to finance, facilitate and coordinate financing Climate Change Adaption and Mitigation projects; and for connected purposes.







County Climate Finance is a mechanism through which counties can create, access and use climate finance to build their resilience and reduce vulnerabilities to a changing climate in a more coordinated way.

These guidelines provide an overview of the County Climate Change Fund (CCCF) mechanism in Kenya. The mechanism is meant to facilitate channelling of climate finance to vulnerable communities through county governments. The primary objective of these guidelines is to inform county governments interested in establishing a devolved climate finance mechanism of the principles and components of the CCCF mechanism, and the process by which it may be established.

The guidelines consist of two sections: Section (Chapters 1-3) provides an introduction to the CCCF mechanism including its core principles, the four components and their design features; and Section II (Chapters 4-7 ) sets out the key steps for establishing the mechanism as well as the major cost drivers[1].

The guidelines are based on over 6 years’ experience of the Adaptation “Ada” Consortium’s work with the five county governments of Garissa, Isiolo, Kitui, Makueni and Wajir that jointly covers 29% of Kenya’s land area and approximately 4 million people. It is informed by over 82 community prioritised public good investments funded at a cost of KES 1 Billion (£7.4M). Even though the design features were largely informed by the dryland context in which the work was piloted, it is expected to evolve as the work is scaled out to new agro-ecological zones and socio-economic contexts in Kenya.

Innovations that have emerged such as performance based budgeting and mechanism for inclusion will be included going forward. Key achievements that the toolkit is drawing lessons from include the enactment of CCCF legislation at county level that improved coordination of climate change activities and ensured budgetary allocation, development of county Climate Information Services (CIS) plans for enhanced access and use of climate information and, investment in priority adaptation interventions across the counties that contributes to resilience building.

The National Drought Management Authority (NDMA) hosted the first Kenya National Policy Dialogue on Decentralised Climate Finance in Nairobi on 18th October 2018.

The dialogue, which was based on the experiences of the County Climate Change Fund (CCCF) mechanism, provided an opportunity for the Adaptation (Ada) Consortium to share and reflect with key national level stakeholders on the evidence and lessons learned from the experience of establishing and implementing the mechanism in the five counties of Garissa, Isiolo, Kitui, Makueni and Wajir.

Convened with the support of the Building Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Extremes and Disasters (BRACED) Programme, it brought together 30 key actors comprising high level government representatives, academia, and civil society organizations (CSOs).

The Policy Dialogue reflected specifically on opportunities for scaling out the experience from the five counties to other counties in the ASALs and beyond, and to using the experience to inform national policy and support implementation of the second National Climate Change Action Plan 2018-2022 (NCCAP II).

It is hoped that the process initiated by this first roundtable will inform plans and actions to fill any knowledge and information gaps to facilitate effective scaling out of the mechanism and integration of its elements into national policy for sustainable climate change financing. This report presents a summary of the main issues discussed at the roundtable, information gaps identified, and suggested follow-up actions.

Since 2013, the Adaptation Consortium has been supporting County Governments of Makueni, Garissa, Kitui, Isiolo and Wajir to pilot the County Climate Change Fund (CCCF) mechanism that aims at mainstreaming climate change into county planning and budgeting processes, and prepare counties to access climate finance by putting in place a legal framework and related structures to help mobilise climate finance both internally and from other sources.

The Consortium undertook a learning exercise in June 2018 on the effectiveness of the CCCF mechanism as piloted across the five counties. One key lesson that emerged is that community driven, bottom up planning as the key principle feature of the mechanism is seen to strengthen public participation thus influencing county annual planning and budgeting by ensuring community priorities are well articulated and captured in the annual plans.

The 2nd phase of the CCCF work is focusing on scaling out to ensure 100% coverage in the five pilot counties and across various regions in the country. It was therefore timely and important to undertake a review of the mechanism to have it strengthened for effective scale out.

This document reports on the CCCF technical design workshop held at the Fairview Hotel in Nairobi on the 21st - 23rd November 2018. The workshop undertook an in-depth interrogation of the original design features of the CCCF mechanism, how these have been applied, whether there are any issues arising from the learning and if the features are well grounded in the CCCF Acts/Regulations as enacted by the counties.

The workshop participants included chief officers responsible for planning and climate change from the five pilot counties (Kitui, Wajir, Garissa, Isiolo and Makueni), Ada Consortium county partners among other key stakeholders who have had a chance to interact with the CCCF mechanism and its implementation.

The 2nd Stakeholders’ Workshop, Samburu Simba Lodge, Isiolo

The Government of Kenya has recognised the need to support climate change adaptation. Nowhere is this more necessary than in the drylands. Different approaches need to be tested using the opportunities offered by the new Constitution for greater devolved planning at the county level.

The Ministry of State for Development of Northern Kenya and other Arid Lands (MDNKOAL) and the Ministry of State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030 (MPND), with support from the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and other partners in Kenya, will design and test approaches that strengthen institutional capacity for climate adaptation in Kenya’s arid lands that can be taken to scale in a subsequent phase.

The design and testing of these approaches will be done through an action research project in Isiolo County, which will maximise opportunities for communities to contribute to the policy and planning process. The design of the action-research project has been informed by a series of stakeholder consultations at community, county and national levels over 2009-10.

The 2nd stakeholders’ workshop in Isiolo (24-25th January 2011) is the final consultative event at which the proposed project’s objectives, outcomes and activities will be discussed and validated prior to writing a full programme document.

Annexes 1 and 2 respectively provide the list of participants and the workshop agenda.

This document reports on the workshop proceedings.

The Wajir County Climate Change Fund Act, 2016
No. 3 of 2016
Date of Assent: 24th May 2016
Date of Commencement: 16th June 2016








Provision of easily accessible, timely and decision-relevant climate information can help society to cope with current climate variability and change; and in turn limit the economic and social damage caused by climate-related disasters. Climate Information Services (CIS) can also support society to build resilience to future climate change and take advantage of opportunities provided by favourable climate conditions. An effective CIS require adequate technical capacities and appropriate communication strategy that enables good exchange within information producers, translators, and user communities.

This initiative outlines a proposed framework for Makueni County Climate Information Services Plan (MCCISP) which aims to develop and deliver weather and climate information which can support local, sub-county and county-level decision making at time frames of hours, days, weeks, months, seasons and years in line with the county, national and international development frameworks including the County Integrated Development Plan (CIDP), Constitution of Kenya 2010, Kenya Vision 2030 and the National Climate Change Response Strategy (NCCRS) as well as the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS).

The plan recognizes that the delivery of Climate Information Service, which can effectively support decision making, requires the engagement of a wide range of stakeholders. Stakeholders of the MCCISP encompass: County Government Administration at county, sub-county, ward and village levels, County Ministry Departments across sectors together with their respective extension services, decentralized national Government agencies, religious leaders across different faith groups and denominations, local, community and livelihood associations, private sector bodies and national and international Public Benefit Organisations (PBOs) and universities and research institutions.

The County Climate Change Fund (CCCF) mechanism is an example of a new devolved climate fnance mechanism piloted by five county governments of Isiolo, Kitui, Makueni, Garissa and Wajir from 2013 to deliver climate finance from the national to local level.

The Adaptation Consortium conducted a learning exercise to gauge the effectiveness of the CCCF Mechanism to improve climate resilience in ASAL regions through investments in improved access to water that were identified and prioritised by the beneficiary communities. This briefing reports on the quantified economic values from surveys of householders, politicians, county and ward-level climate resilience committees. All respondents report better access to water for their livestock and household.

Benefits at household level every year were KES 14,170 (£109) per household far exceeding costs of implementation which were in total KES 3,640 (£28) per household. A large proportion of direct benefits accrue to women, who report shorter journeys (two hours less) to collect water for domestic use every day. These women are re-investing their time in family and households, business and girls into schoolwork. Inequality, untapped economic value and challenges from political succession and communication all need to be addressed to ensure sustainability of these investments. 


The County Climate Change Fund (CCCF) Mechanism has been pioneered by the Ada Consortium in five Counties in Kenya since 2012. The aim is to support the National Drought Management Authority’s Strategy Plan 2018-2022[1] which aims to enhance drought resilience and climate change adaptation. The approach is four-pronged – establishment of a County Climate change fund that enables communities to plan, implement and manage public good investments that enhances their resilience to climate change; establishing County- and Ward-level climate change planning committees; development of and integration of Climate Information Systems into adaptation at all political levels; and a Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development framework. 

This report focuses on the first two. We seek to learn from the three most-advanced County pilots – in Isiolo, Makueni, and Wajir Counties – to enable efficient scale-up that delivers enhanced drought resilience and climate adaptation. We collected data from a range of stakeholders on the costs associated with implementing the CCCF Mechanism from Ada Consortium partners, surveyed 369 households, 30 key informants from County- and Ward-level Climate Planning Committees, and ran 30 focus group discussions at community- and Ward-level with a focus on gender groups and other potentially marginalised groups.

We find the CCCF Mechanism to be Value-for-Money (VfM), cost effective and delivering genuine impact. It strongly points to the potential for transformational change across the Arid and Semi Arid Lands (ASALs) landscape in Kenya, and beyond. However, the learning reported here must be taken into consideration, and learning itself better integrated, mainstreamed and standardised into all future CCCF Mechanism projects in Kenya, and beyond. Challenges include the lack of qualification and quantification of experience, which both limits learning and the scalability of the CCCF Mechanism, refinement of the existing operations, learning form the implementation, and understanding the precise impact on the ground. This report aims to provide some of the answers sought.

The level of investment by development partners in the CCCF Mechanism in the three Counties was £866, 387 since 2011. The investment per beneficiary is between £2.52 – 8.31 and by household between £18.18­ – 48.85.  These are minimum figures, and may omit investment in some aspects of the CCCF Mechanism by development partners (on development of the Climate Change Act), by both the Government of Kenya and County-level authorities (in supporting activities on climate change and rural economic development), and by communities (in decision-making, constructing, operating, delivering and governing projects that enhance climate change resilience).

The estimated level of direct economic value created by these changes is £3.1-3.2 million per annum. This is equivalent to an extra 10% of household income per annum. This is a minimum figure, and omits value created from direct and indirect benefits of climate change resilience uplift, access to water, recognition of community voices in policy processes and capacity built as part of the CCCF Mechanism – including management techniques and negotiation. Furthermore, indirect benefits may include reduced costs for some national investments, such as the National Drought Emergency Fund[2] and may be relevant to include.

Depending on how these projects progress we can expect these direct economic benefits to persist. Indeed, many projects are leveraging on the direct economic value created through the CCCF Mechanism as a catalyst for generating flows of indirect economic value in communities, with schools expanding, healthier herds, market gardens, Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs), and a range of other livelihood-enhancing activities reported.

Over 99% of respondents are positive about the CCCF Mechanism and the impact delivered by altering political processes and enabling improved management and access to water. Indeed, respondents report a series of economic, social, environmental and livelihood enabling benefits from the CCCF Mechanism.

There are a number of issues which need to be strengthened in the three Counties and integrated into plans to embed CCCF Mechanism in other Counties. These include: ensuring the roles of WCCPC and CCCPC members are fully understood, that inclusion is a focus, and critically that communication between County, Ward and Community is enhanced.

Some stakeholders are currently missing from the supply chain, and need to be integrated. Specifically the external private sector should be invited to understand how best to integrate their needs and willingness to participate in current and future CCCF Mechanism projects.

Our survey and approach here was constrained by time, and will be revised in future iterations. For instance, we were unable to ascertain how well the CCCF Mechanism works with other initiatives in the field. Clearly, this is a key factor for both national and county government and reporting on the complementarities the CCCF Mechanism brings to the devolution process.

Furthermore, we propose further learning is conducted to understand better how the Operational Fund is used; how communication can be improved among Counties, Ward and Communities; how to tailor the approach based on population density and other unique characteristics of Kenya’s Counties and Wards, to ensure delivery of drought resilience and climate adaptation.

[1] NDMA was established by Act in 2016 with the mandate to exercise overall coordination over all matters relating to drought management including implementation of policies and programmes relating to drought management. See more:

[2] NDEF is managed by the NDMA. See more here: GoK (2018).

The Constitution of Kenya (CoK) 2010 profoundly encourages transparency and accountability in governance with signature emphasis on bottom-up approach and bestowing immense powers on the citizens on holding duty bearers accountable through various progressive provisions.  Devolution particularly embodies the transformative CoK 2010’s bottom-up approach of governance in Kenya. Through devolution, a number of milestones have been realized and lives transformed especially in the marginalized regions like Northern parts of Kenya hitherto promulgation of the constitution.

Despite notable devolution milestones, corruption remains one of the greatest threats towards realization of the promise of devolution (TI-Kenya; 2014&2015). Social accountability mechanisms are very key tools that citizens can use in performing their oversight function for efficient and effective service delivery. Section 24 of The Climate Change Act 2016, provides for Public engagement and the climate change Council is mandated to prepare and publish a public engagement strategy after every twelve months.

The strategy should set out the steps that it intends to take to inform the public about climate change action plans and encourage the public to contribute to the achievement of the objectives of those action plans. The act Provides for the public engagement strategy to identify actions which the public may take to contribute to the achievement of the purposes.Through the Climate Change Act, 2016 mandates all the County Governments powers to mainstream all climate change actions in the various sectors. 

In performance of its functions, a county Government shall integrate and mainstream climate change actions, interventions and duties set out in this Act, and the National Climate Change Action Plan into various sectors. The Counties are the required to report on climate actions to the County Assemblies then to the Ministry/Council and the National Assembly to highlight the accountability mechanism. The Climate Change Fund thereby established as a financing mechanism for priority climate change actions and interventions approved by climate change Council. The Fund is vested in the National Treasury and monies appropriated from the Consolidated Fund by an Act of Parliament.

Kenya being a developing nation whose economy depends on climate sensitive natural resources, and due to her geographic positioning, all her sectors are vulnerable to climate change and its impacts. Although Kenya having become middle income country, climate change challenges increases the cost of development. Growth in all sectors have to take a low carbon, climate resilient development pathway. To achieve this, Kenyan actors need to access appropriate cutting edge technology, build capacity of its institutions and actors, as well as facilitate access to financing to enable various actors play their respective roles.

These require additional funding over and above the normal development agenda. Cognizant of the importance of social accountability mechanisms in the implementation of Climate Funds, Adaptation Consortium (ADA) has commissioned a review of relevant social accountability mechanisms through this report with a view of exploring opportunities for strengthening the County Climate Change Funds governance for effective utilization of the resources through citizen-led initiatives.

The Report therefore details a brief about the project, review of the social accountability mechanisms providing both threats and opportunities of various tools in reference to various stakeholders. The report also identifies a number of good practices from ongoing work of ADA as well as from other parts of the World for replication. 


Kenya developed and launched its frst fve-year National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP) in 2013 as a tool to enhance adaptation to climate change and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The NCCAP 2013-2017 plan set out 38 priority actions to help the country transition to a low carbon climate resilient development pathway.Nine actions were completed by April 2018, seven did not progress, and 22 are in progress and will carry over to the second NCCAP (2018-2022).

Signifcant progress was made under the frst NCCAP 2013-2017. This includes the development of the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) 2015-2030; establishment of climate change funds to support adaptation actions in fve ASAL counties; expansion of renewable energy, including geothermal, solar and wind; establishment of the National Climate Change Resource Centre; and improvement of the legal and policy framework.

This will include the Climate Change Act, 2016; National Climate Change Framework Policy; and National Climate Finance Policy.

Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) integrates the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services into an overall climate change adaptation strategy.

Globally, EbA projects are increasing in number, and experience to date suggests that EbA holds great potential to increase local resilience and adaptive capacity, especially for the poorest and most vulnerable communities. Evidence is largely case study-based and often anecdotal, however. Better consolidated, comparative evidence regarding EbA effectiveness would help policy makers make more informed choices about how best to design and implement climate change responses (such as National Adaptation Plans). This chapter outlines a recently developed question-based framework developed to qualitatively assess EbA effectiveness.

It describes some early observations from framework application in five countries and outlines potential and emerging institutional and political challenges and opportunities to realizing the benefits of EbA on the ground in these five countries.

Click here to read more.

The Isiolo County Climate Change Fund Act, 2018


An Act of the County Assembly of Isiolo for the establishment of a Climate Change Fund to finance, facilitate and coordinate financing Climate Change Adaption and Mitigation projects; and for connected purposes
by the County Assembly of Isiolo.


IN EXERCISE of the powers conferred by Section 116 of the Public Finance Management Act number 18 of 2012, the Kitui County Executive Committee Member for the time being responsible for County Treasury makes the following Regulations: -

The Public Finance Management Act (Kitui County Climate Change Fund) Regulations, 2018.

This is an Act of the Garissa County Assembly for the establishment of a Climate Change Fund for facilitating community initiated Climate Change Adaption and Mitigation projects; and for connected purposes;

The object of this Act is to create a fund in the County for the purpose of facilitating Climate Finance in the County for:-

  1. Establishing Climate Finance mechanisms in the County;
  2. Facilitating planning for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in the county planning and budgetary framework
  3. Seeking and receiving grants from international sources, the National Government, the County Government and other organizations
  4. Initiating and coordinating Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation frameworks at the community level in the County;
  5. Facilitating community initiated Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation activities in the County; and
  6. Coordinating support from National Government Climate Change policy and legislative framework

Kenya is frequently affected by weather-related disasters, particularly droughts and floods. Drought occurs cyclically and historically it has affected Kenya’s economy more significantly than floods. Recurrent droughts have destroyed livelihoods, triggered local conflicts over scarce resources and eroded the ability of communities to cope. Heavy rainfall during the season causes flash floods which mostly affect urbanised areas.

Kenya Meteorological Department has given climate information for many years but the uptake has been limited due to a number of reasons. Most of these reasons revolve around i) relevancy and content of the climate information services, ii) the channels of communication, and iii) understanding of the climate information given to the public.

This initiative outlines a proposed framework for Isiolo County Climate Information Services Plan (ICCISP) which aims to develop and deliver weather and climate information which can support local, sub-county and county-level decision making at time frames of hours, days, weeks, months, seasons and years in line with the County, national and international development frameworks including the County Integrated Development Plan (CIDP), Constitution of Kenya 2010, Kenya Vision 2030 and the National Climate Change Response Strategy (NCCRS) as well as the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS).

The Climate Information Services (CIS) Plan aims to support society to build resilience to future climate change and take advantage of opportunities provided by favourable climate conditions.

Kenya is frequently affected by weather and climate related disasters, particularly droughts and floods. Drought occurs cyclically and historically they have affected Kenya’s economy more significantly than floods.Recurrent droughts have destroyed livelihoods, triggered local conflicts over scarce resources and eroded the ability of communities to cope with the vagaries of climate change. Heavy rainfall during the season causes flash floods and more localized, mostly affecting urbanised areas.

Kenya Meteorological Department has provided climate information for many years but the uptake has been limited due to several reasons. Most of these reasons revolve around 

  1. Relevance and content of the climate information services,
  2. The channels of communication, and
  3. Understanding of the climate information given to users

Climate variability and change are affecting millions of poor people in Kenya, particularly in arid and semi-arid lands. Significant investments are being made in developing Climate Information Services (CIS) which are tailored to the needs of pastoralists and agro-pastoralists and aim to help them adapt to the impact of climate change in these regions. Recent research has found that a new category of ultra-poor are falling out of dominant pastoralist and agro-pastoralist livelihoods and they are unable to beneft from CIS. To improve the impact of CIS, Kenya’s county governments should put more focus on: (a) adopting an equity lens for the integration of CIS in county planning processes, so as to better reach those outside dominant livelihoods types, and (b) improving the understanding of constraints and enabling conditions for the poor in accessing and using CIS within both mainstream and alternative livelihoods systems.

The new constitution of Kenya (GoK, 2010) offers the opportunity for services to be moved closer to the citizens at the county and sub-county (constituency) or community/grassroots levels. This opportunity, in turn, calls for a concerted effort by KMD to strengthen its infrastructure and services to reach and have the desired influence upon the community or grassroots level of society, where the most severe impacts of climate variability and climate change are realized.

The potential benefits from enhancing the quality and use of meteorological, climate and hydrological information and products in decision-making are enormous, but realizing these benefits will require improvement in infrastructure, human resources development and engagement between providers and users to improve the process for decision- making and to realise social and economic benefits.

This CIS Plan therefore aims to develop a strategy or a framework for providing climate services at the county level with the user’s needs in mind. The implementation of this framework will depend heavily on partnering with all those organisations and individuals whose activity will suffer due to extreme weather and climate impacts.

Weather and climate have direct influence and impact on human comfort, socio-economic activities and the natural environment. Over the years, humans have altered natural ecosystems through various activities leading to modified local and regional climates. Today, human influence on the physical environment at a global scale is depicted by rapid increase in population size, energy consumption, intensity of land use, international trade and travel, and other human activities. The resulting global change have heightened awareness that the long-term good health of populations depends on the continued stability and functioning of the biosphere's ecological, physical, and socio-economic systems.

There is no doubt that the vagaries of weather and climate play a critical role in shaping Africa’s development agenda. This requires a collective approach, unity of purpose based upon the shared vision on climate proofing, genuine partnerships and commitment. National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) and Societies are critical actors in supporting sustainable development. Although there is today, increased awareness of the socio-economic benefits derived from weather and climate services, there is still a need to enhance the uptake of scientific knowledge within our society. Information exchange and public education are some of the interventions that can help attain this goal.

There is, therefore, need for various stakeholders to have a forum to share various findings and engage on the role of weather, climate and environmental research in achieving sustainable development. It is with this in mind that the Kenya Meteorological Society (KMS), with the support of National Drought Management Authority (NDMA), Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD), United Nations Educational, Social and Cultural Organization/Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO/IOC), organized the 12th KMS International Conference.




Multi-billion dollar opportunity for county-level public investment

The establishment of the UN’s Green Climate Fund (GCF) offers the potential for county and national governments to access significant financial resources to support investments in adaptation and mitigation. The GCF will come online in 2015, and aims to be running at full capacity by 2020, with resources of $100bn per year. 50% of these funds will be earmarked specifically for adaptation projects. The GCF will function in addition to pre-existing multilateral and bilateral climate funds.

At present, operational funds for adaptation in Kenya include the UN Adaptation Fund, due to begin direct disbursements to Kenyan implementers in the near future, DFID’s International Climate Fund ($13.5m), and the World Bank’s Special Climate Change Fund ($6.5m). The projects have a broad focus, including spending on disaster risk reduction, water infrastructure, and arid lands development.

From 2007-2013, Kenya was the second largest recipient of climate finance in Sub Saharan Africa, having been allocated $457.8m, most of which was dedicated to development of the national energy grid. So far, $42.12m has been earmarked specifically for adaptation projects. This represents 1.23% of the $3.4bn allocated for adaptation worldwide.

If Kenya were to maintain this level of access to international climate finance when the Green Climate Fund reaches full capacity, it stands to receive $615m in finance for climate adaptation each year. If it were to double its level of access, it could stand to gain $1.2bn each year. Pre-established county level funds could prove to be versatile mechanisms through which to channel this funding to support community driven development and resilience building priorities.

The Challenge

At the international level, global flows of climate finance are increasing – amounting to approximately USD 360 billion in 20121. The establishment of the Green Climate Fund (GCF) and its commitment to direct 50% of its anticipated annual fund of USD100bn by 2020 to vulnerable countries for climate change adaptation offers significant opportunities. The GCF will function in addition to pre-existing multi–lateral and bi-lateral climate funds. Climate vulnerable countries, such as Kenya, that demonstrates capacity to channel these funds to the most vulnerable and drive climate resilient economic growth, while demonstrating strong fiduciary standards, will be well-placed to access global climate finance.

Pre-established county level funds could prove to be versatile mechanisms through which to channel this funding to sup- port community driven development and resilience building priorities. Their devolved nature could also make them preferred mechanisms for direct access to fund disbursements, supporting the country driven focus of the fund. Access to such funds will be in accordance with the Kenyan constitution (2010) which grants county government’s authority and responsibility for developing the social and economic aspects of their county according to local priorities. The Adaptation Consortium in Kenya is addressing this challenge.

The Devolved Climate Finance

The Adaptation Consortium (Ada) is helping to strengthen the institutional arrangements that will enable climate finance from the Green Climate Fund and other sources to ow through the National Drought Management Authority to Arid and Semi Arid Lands (ASALs) counties. The County Climate Adaptation fund set up by the Consortium enables the prioritization of adaptation investments by vulnerable communities through representative ward-level institutions.

Initially piloted in Isiolo County, the approach is now being implemented in four other ASAL counties of Garissa, Kitui, Makueni and Wajir which in total cover approximately 29% of Kenya’s land area and a population of 4 million plus. At the end of the project in 2017, it is expected that 2.5 million people will be supported to cope with climate change through provision of climate information, while 800,000 people will bene t directly from adaptation investments.