Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) integrates the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services into an overall climate change adaptation strategy.

Globally, EbA projects are increasing in number, and experience to date suggests that EbA holds great potential to increase local resilience and adaptive capacity, especially for the poorest and most vulnerable communities. Evidence is largely case study-based and often anecdotal, however. Better consolidated, comparative evidence regarding EbA effectiveness would help policy makers make more informed choices about how best to design and implement climate change responses (such as National Adaptation Plans). This chapter outlines a recently developed question-based framework developed to qualitatively assess EbA effectiveness.

It describes some early observations from framework application in five countries and outlines potential and emerging institutional and political challenges and opportunities to realizing the benefits of EbA on the ground in these five countries.

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